понедельник, 20 августа 2012 г.

HOYA



HOYA


 Hoya - one of the most common indoor flowering vines. Received its name in honor of the English gardener T. Hoey. A genus of plants of the family Asclepiadaceous, has about 200 species, distributed in Australia, China, India, the Pacific Islands.

Hoya - evergreen shrub or shrub with climbing, creeping or hanging long, thin stems that require support. The leaves are dark green, one-piece, thick, leathery, of different size and shape, are opposite. Hoya flowers are very delicate, white, pink, yellow, fragrant, collected in umbellate inflorescence and sell in a basket. Each individual flower is shaped five-pointed star, much less a star located in the center of the flower and has a different coloring.
After the first flower buds and during flowering, the plant does not touch the product or be moved from place to place, or already blooming buds and flowers will fall off. Hoya blooms all summer, starting in June, each inflorescence bloom for several weeks. After flowering, cut the flower stalks are not, as in the following year they developed new buds. With good care strongest specimens bloom profusely and continuously.
In indoor horticulture often grow Hoya Hoya and meaty perfect.
Hoya fleshy (Hoya carnosa). Known in the culture as a wax ivy. Climbing shrub with slender stems over a length of 5 m (in the pot up to 2 m). The leaves are ovate-oblong, thick, juicy, leathery, glossy, up to 5.8 cm leaf apex obtuse or shortly pointed. In room culture known variegated forms with cream and reddish patches in the middle of the sheet and with yellowish border around the edge. The leaves are covered with a waxy bloom, hence the common name of this plant. The flowers are star-shaped, fragrant, white, pink, with a darker spot in the middle, gathered in an umbrella. Motherland - China and India.

Hoya fleshy
Hoya carnosa
Inflorescence Hoya tenderloin
Hoya carnosa
Hoya wonderful or beautiful (Hoya bella) - a small evergreen with many branches, very leafy shrub with sloping or drooping branches, reaching 30-50 cm in length. The leaves are small (3-3.5 cm), ovate-lancelets with a pointed apex, fleshy. Flowers numerous, star-shaped, white in the middle of crimson. Homeland - Burma.

Hoya beautiful
Hoya bella
Inflorescence beautiful Hoya
Hoya bella
Rarely in the sale can be seen Hoya Multiflora (Hoya multiflora). Is a compact climber. The leaves are oblong, linear, 8-14 cm long, 4-5 cm wide, thin, dark green with visible veins. The flowers are yellowish-white, in the form of bats, collected in inflorescence umbrella, have a characteristic smell of lemon. In this inflorescence can be up to 30-40 flowers. Homeland - Indonesia, the Philippines.

Hoya Multiflora
Hoya multiflora
Inflorescence Hoya Multiflora
Hoya multiflora
Hoya, thanks to its decorative merits and small claims in culture is becoming more and more widespread among houseplants.

Plant Care
Location: Hoya should grow in bright rooms. The best place for this waxy ivy western and eastern windows. Useful little direct sun, but in the summer the hottest days to plant pritenyat.
Temperature during the active growth optimum temperature is about 22-25 ° C. Necessary to ventilate the room, where the Hoya, but outdoors it cannot endure. In winter the temperature does not exceed 12-15 ° C (for Hoya beautiful winter minimum of 18 ° C). Can hibernate and at a higher temperature, but flowering next year will not be as plentiful.
Watering in the spring and summer time Hoya recommended to water profusely, but trying to avoid waterlogging, and during flowering make sure that no water enters the flowers in winter, depending on the temperature of the water regime changes, but do not allow drying earthen coma. Watering is recommended well-settled water.
Abundant flowering can be stimulated by immersing the whole plant for 30 minutes in warm water with a temperature of 35 ° C, and the ball lands in the same water for 2 hours.

Humidity: undemanding in a cool room, but at temperatures above 20 ° C it is often necessary to spray the leaves. For spraying, use only soft water, otherwise the leaves are formed spots. Once a week, the leaves should be cleaned with a damp cloth to remove dust.

Dressing: from the spring and throughout the growing season, Hoya fed twice a month flower fertilizers, then the soil must be loosened without damaging the roots. Grows well in hydroponics.


Transplantation: the young plants are transplanted each year in spring, older copies - in 2-3 years. Best substrate is a mixture of leaf, turf ground, humus, peat and sand (2:1:1:1:1). At the bottom of the pot set good drainage to earth com re wet not. Care must be taken and the support for the rapidly growing long shoots.
In order to better plant branch, long stems pinch. If the shoots become too long, some can be cut. Better crop growth long shoots, leaving the short branches, which are flowering.
Propagation: Hoya propagated by seed, layering, but most cuttings.
Propagated by cuttings Hoya shoots of the previous year in the spring or fall, although almost rooting possible throughout the year. At each harvested graft should be at least two pairs of leaves. Slice do not directly under the node and below, as the roots appear in the interstices. Rooted in water, or in damp sand substrate, consisting of peat and sand (2:1) at a temperature below 20 ° C. Rooting occurs in 3-4 weeks. Once the cuttings are rooted, they are planted with several eggs in one pot. Grafted plants bloom in the fourth year.

Pests: with little care for Hoya can settle armored scales, red spider mites. The plant is often affected with powdery mildew (mildew).
Red spider mite appears on the plant, if it is contained at very high temperatures and dry air. Formed on the leaves are light brown or small white spots. The leaves turn yellow, dry up and fall off. The plant is delayed in growth and development. Necessary to increase the humidity around the plant, and the plant  is treated aktellik (15-20 drops to 1 liter of water).

The emergence of scale insects are also extremely frustrating. The plant gets sloppy form leaves wither and fall off. Scale insects on the discharge settles sooty fungus. Scale insects clean off with a cloth moistened with soapy water or alcohol. With heavy infestation plant should be drawn from the apartment and process with carbonate phosphate.

To combat sucking insects can also be used extracts of garlic and onions. Take 1 teaspoon of finely chopped onion and 1/2 teaspoon garlic and soaked in a closed glass of water during the day, then this infusion wash plant.

Powdery mildew affects the leaves of the plant, they appear white bloom. Launched on plant mildew covers the buds and stems. Necessary to strengthen ventilation in the room and increase humidity.

Possible difficulties in growing waxy ivy (Hoya)
The spots on the leaves. The reason for their appearance - lack or excess of light. High doses or excessive use of fertilizers. The spots can appear as a result of watering plants with cold water.
Hoya does not bloom - poor lighting, not enough nutrients in the soil, the plant wintered at high temperature. If the stalks are cut, the plant may not bloom for several years.
Growing hoy - it is not too complex, with an exciting and lots of fun. Some Hoyas grow very slowly and reluctantly, but others instantly turn into an adult flowering specimens. Their diversity is striking: the green and variegated, large-and small-leaved, vines and upright.
Unlike other plants, Hoya let grow new flowers on old stalks, so they do not have to break off after flowering. Over the years, the number of stems increases and becomes more abundant blooms. However, there are exceptions - for example, in H. bella and H. linearis stalks blooms only once, litter fall after flowering. In H. multiflora peduncles usually fall after the second bloom.
Peduncle at H.carnosa development is as follows:
• The appearance of the peduncle.
• Development of the peduncle.
• Development of the peduncle.
• dissolve the peduncle.
• The second wave of blossoms fades to spike.
Depending on your preferred method of growth Hoya can be divided into three groups:  ampelous (hanging) binding the support and upright (bush). As an example of the latter group of plants can cause Hoya multiflora and Hoya cumingiana. (However, the question is not whether to move them to a different genus, Centro stemma, botanists discussed.)



Since Hoya still quite rare in the sale, the main method of acquisition - the purchase of the cuttings. Good cutting should have at least two nodes, that is, two pairs of leaves. Three or four pairs of leaves are preferable, because such cuttings quickly give roots and embark on growth. Cuttings smaller implant is also quite possible, especially if it is a species with large leaves. Cuttings of plants are best cut in the spring, when the plant comes out of dormancy. It is best suited for rooting shoots last year. Older or younger shoots too entrenched, but it may require more time and effort.

There are several ways of rooting cuttings.
The easiest way - in a glass with water.
The alternative is rooting in moss, sphagnum moss or a special substrate.
The formulation of the substrate may vary. Here are two examples:
The first option
1 part sphagnum moss or peat;
1 part vermiculite or perlite;
1 part fine expanded clay aggregate or foam.

The second option
3/5 of planting material;
Fifth part perlite or vermiculite;
1/5 of small clay pellets.
Some advice cutting process before boarding rooting gel or other means to improve root formation, but it is not a mandatory procedure.

Capacity for cuttings are determined solely by your imagination. It can be clay or plastic pots, disposable cups or coffee cups. In the latter case, you just do not forget the drainage holes. Bottles of soda water or cartons cakes can be used as a mini-greenhouse. Of course, the ideal would be a board greenhouse with bottom heating. If you are not limited to one or two handles, this will be a good acquisition.

  
 It happens on the handle appear stalks with buds. Sometimes before the formation of roots. In most cases, these buds fall off on their own, because of the cutting is not enough for these forces. Therefore, they can provide their own fate. You may even be able to see more blooms in a glass of water. If the stalk is not thrown off the buds itself, one or two of the flower bloomed it’s not particularly weakened, cannot worry.
Stalk, which gave good roots and having gone to the growth, you can move into a permanent pot. It is very important not to overdo it with the size. It is better if the size of the pot will be slightly less necessary than too large. In a large pot over your cutting will develop roots at the expense of their own growth and flowering. Even the most powerful of these vines thrive for years in pots with a diameter 17-20 cm is not so large species will feel well in a pot with a diameter of 10-12 cm entire life.

In what soil to plant rooted cutting? Universal solution does not exist. First, preferences hoi defined by their natural occurrence, very diverse. Second, they are quite well adapted to the preferences and financial capabilities of their respective owners.

There are people who have completely grown successfully Hoya in the ordinary soil of a flower shop. However, most are still trying to establish their plants more suitable conditions.

Therefore, we suggest to approach this issue creatively. Try to learn more about the natural origin of their plants, and do not allow whose whatever practical advice to take the upper hand over your unconditional logical thinking. This is not always justified.
Many hoya suitable mixture of the following composition:
1 part perlite or vermiculite;
1 part small clay pellets;
1 part sphagnum moss or peat;
2 of the usual soil for plants.
For species that are sensitive to dry, add a little more moss. Do not add sand to the mix, as in this case, it quickly dries up and compressed.
But sensitive and fastidious H. serpens and H. curtisii, for example, will be much better feel in orchid substrates or substrate based on coconut fiber.
Some collectors are grown all my Hoya is in orchid substrate. Some of them fill the pot halfway. As the filler remaining space is used garden soil, mixed with slaked lime, or soil mixture containing the above ingredients in a particular ratio.


All Hoya need breathable substrate.
The final choice - for you.
For example, a collector from the city of Levin in New Zealand, says that her H. bella grew well for a long time in the pieces of pumice. A H. carnosa felt great in a small glass of water, which occasionally added fertilizer. Stem of the plant is completely above the water, for his support in a glass poured pebbles that hoyka gladly braided roots. However, for such experiments, probably makes sense to choose a widespread plant.

Mature plants should be repotted about once a year, in a pot, little more than the same volume. Some species prefer a rare transplant.

We must bear in mind that there is a period of rest Khoi, in which the plant as a "freeze", stopping growth. In nature, it depends on the change of seasons. At home, the seasons do not have a clear character and a period of rest will soon depend on the reduction of daylight. If you managed to create all the necessary conditions Hoya's content, it might be just a "miss" a period of rest. If the plant is "stopped", stopping in growth, - a few reduce watering. All transplants it is desirable to make the period of active growth, which appeared when the rest of the plant is growing strongly, and it becomes a regular watering.
There is a widespread misconception that the Hoya need bright sunshine, the low or no fertilizer and watering lean. This is a myth, because the lack of irrigation Hoya weaken, and even die. Ensure, for example, H. bella generous regular watering (not to be confused with the Gulf!) and feeding, and it will bloom like never before. Or try to dry completely earthen who your H. serpens - very likely it simply dies. Plants need light for photosynthesis. However, the increase of light will lead to, for example, species with dark green leaves that grow naturally in shadow places, simply change color, blush, to be protected from excessive sunlight. Reddening of leaves in most cases may indicate the following:

plant is too bright in the correct place;
plant is too hot;
in the sun too hot pot, and, consequently, the earth com plants.
Try to formulate some general provisions hoya’s care, not forgetting that there are no rules without exceptions. No matter how extensive collection of people on the basis of experience which state these tips, all hoi not managed to collect anyone. So listen to your plants, not counting anyone's advice guide to action, not suffering the slightest derogation.

Thick hard or succulent leaves
Typically, this plant likes sun. They should be watered with dry earthen clod between watering’s. The exception is the Hoya australis, which grows best at constant moisture (not wet, turning into a swamp!) And in partial shade.
Examples: H. carnosa, H. kerrii, H. pubicalyx.

Thin sheet
Needs regular watering, in most cases, generally in a constant humidity earthen clod as thin leaves indicate that the plant loses moisture rapidly. Thin leaves species generally do not like direct sun, in contrast to the succulent species. For most of them works best for west or east window. On the north window, they likely also will feel good.
Examples: H. multiflora, H. pauciflora, H. kenejiana.

Pubescent, light green leaves
These plants prefer a sunny content with copious irrigation, which is to prevent dehydration and wilting leaves.


Hairy, dark green leaves
Most of these plants seem to prefer cool and shady content. Regular watering, without overdrying Bay and earthen clod.
Examples: H. thomsonii, H. tsangii, H. serpens.
  
Watering Hoya, we must remember that none of them do not like to live with a wet "feet." For example, a very experienced collector from Massachusetts (David Misiaszek), said that keeps his collection without pallets to ensure that they do not accumulate excess water. Much water and the bay - two very different things.

Hui are major pests mealy bug, aphids, spider mites. Hoya also may be affected by the fungus. Ways to deal with adversity listed - traditional, you can find them in the section "pests".

The optimal composition of mineral fertilizing for hoi yet also remains open. Choosing the right fertilizer, it is advisable to listen to common sense, try to imagine how Hoya grew in nature and, if possible, to reproduce the conditions. Hoya, growing, for example, on the forks of tall trees where moss accumulates over time (eg, H. engleriana), will clearly refers to calcium in the fertilizer is not as Hoya's growing on the river bank, where the missing remains of shells (for example, H . inconspicua, or H. revoluta). A H. obtusifolia, inhabit the mountainous areas are likely to prefer a more "austere" mode fertilizing than inmates mangrove forests or jungles (eg, H. halophila, H. citrina and H. sariae).

The main reason that we must be guided by choosing empirically optimal fertilizer for their pets - "better not Doda than pass." As in the second case to correct the situation is more complicated. Any ready fertilizer sense diluted several times stronger than specified in the instructions. Specialists, growers Hoya commercially, it seems the best part of NPK + Mg (10-11-18-2). They also call for not delude fertilizers from supermarkets, saying that they practically do not contain beneficial trace elements.


Different sources also frequently mentioned by the lovely fertilizer for flowering succulents applied to Hoyas.
Also a common belief that the regular transfer (once a year or two) Hoya does not need regular mineral supplements.





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